Will JAPAN go BANKRUPT because of the OLYMPICS? – VisualPolitik EN

Will JAPAN go BANKRUPT because of the OLYMPICS? – VisualPolitik EN

Japan is to economics what Axl Rose is to
music business. They both rocked in the late 80s and beginning of the 90s, then they started losing ground and nowadays, anytime they try to make a comeback, the results are… pretty disappointing. I know what you are thinking… from the first
glance, Japan doesn’t seem to be that bad, right? They have the videogames, the anime movies
and world class tech behemoths. And their capital, Tokyo, looks like a Scy-Fy
city. It is the World’s biggest metropolis, with
over 30 M people, and they have the fastest trains, the most modern TVs and even human-like
robots. Nonetheless, this country has been 2 decades
without no economic growth. And this is not the worst! Japan is the most indebted country in the
whole planet. They owe more than twice their entire GDP. And their population is decreasing faster
than anywhere else, which poses a big problem in order to pay retirement pensions. This is one of the reasons why Japanese workers
make crazy hours and have almost no vacations. And those good old technological juggernauts
like HITACHI or PANASONIC are falling behind the more modern companies from China or America. But hold on just a second because things might
change! Yes, I’m talking about the TOKYO OLIMPICS,
2020. A peerless opportunity to make to showcase
the whole country and get the world’s attention. Yes, my dear viewers… since Japan won the
Olimpic bid, in the year 2013, tourism has skyrocketed from one day to the other. And the same goes with private investment. By that year 2020, Tokyo will have 45 brand
new skyscrapers. Nothing more and nothing less. And companies like PANASONIC will set state
of the art solar cells all over the place so people can charge their electric cars. If this was not enough, SONY will launch their
brand new 8K TV screens. Yep, you heard that right. If 4K was not enough, now we will have 8K
so you will be able to see even the microfiber of the athletes Tshirts. But hold on just a second because… not everything
is as beautiful! You see, when Tokyo won the Olympic bid, they
budgeted them in 6.5 billion dollars. But once they started with the building, the
costs have doubled. And they haven’t even finished! In fact, Tokyo’s city hall has predicted
the total cost might end up near the 20 billion USD. So the question is… would this Summer Olympic
Games be an opportunity for Japan… or the opposite? Are Olympic Games as good for a country’s
economy as some people say? Today we are gonna answer all of this questions
but, before, let’s take a look back at history. AN OLYMPIC FALACY? Few things spark nacional pride as much as
Olympic games. Of course, we all like to brag about the gold
medals our country has. But what really inflames patriotism the most
is to become an Olympic host. The excitement it generates is so big that
everyone, regardless of their ideology, seems to think that organizing an event like this
is a good thing for the country. Nonetheless, inside the economists field,
things are not that clear. In fact… the arguments in favour of hosting
Olympics are a little bit like… hmm… how should I say? They are so inconsistent they could be a tweet
written by Donald Trump According to a paper from the Bank of Japan,
the effects of the Olympics are so good that you can tell even before they have been celebrated. More specifically, the same year the International
Olympic Committee named Tokyo as the host city, everyone started to see Japan as a perfect
place for investment. Remember that we are talking about a paper
from an institution as prestigious as the Bank of Japan. This would be the Japanese equivalent to the
American Federal Reserve. This said, one of their main arguments is
that, if your city gets to be an Olympic host, the whole country can join all those big organizations
every country would like to be a member of. Want examples? Here you have examples! Barcelona got the nomination in 1986 and… BOOM! That very same year, they joined the European
Union. Beijing was nominated in 2001 and… BOOM! That year they joined the World Trade Organization. What do you say? It seems like nobody could argue this train
of thoughs, right? Well… wait a second because this is a textbook
example of a correlation fallacy. In other words, the fact that Spain joined
the EU the same year Barcelona got chosen as the Olympic host does not mean one thing
caused the other. In fact, Portugal also joined the EU on the
same year without hosting anything. And the same happened with China. On the same times, other Asian countries joined
the WTO without organizing no sport events. But I know what you are gonna tell me now! Hey Simon, what about the international attention? During two weeks, the whole world is going
to put their eyes in Japan. We are talking about the biggest sport event
in the world. Or maybe not? You see, the London Olympics 2012 got an average
audience of, around 31 million people in America. To make a comparison, this is twice as much
as a Game of Thrones episode. Yes, it’s not bad. But… what happened with the rest of the
games? For example, Sochi Winter Olympics, 2014,
didn’t even get to have 22 million viewers in the States. And Rio 2016 was around 26 million. This might look big to you, guys, but is nothing
if we compare it with a much cheaper event like the SUPERBOWL. The 2016 Superbowl surpassed 110 million viewers. In other words, even though Olympics are watched
all around the world, when you look at the audiences country by country, the figures
are not so impressive. And this means that the perception that people
have about a country does not change. At least, it doesn’t change… for good… In a study of the impact of the 2000 Olympics
in Sydney, Australian researchers interviewed people one year before and after the Games. They found little change in perceptions, with
one surprising wrinkle: South Africans had soured on Australia “because of the way
in which the Aboriginal issue was highlighted and portrayed by the South African media,” Nonetheless, there is one thing where it seems
fair to agree: Olympic games kickstart your tourism industry. Actually, since Tokyo was chosen as the Olympic
host, tourism in Japan has skyrocketed. They almost didn’t have tourists in 2013
and now they surpassed 24 million people last year. You can say a brand new industry has been
born in Japan. And this is an industry that attracts lots
of foreign money… Who wouldn’t be happy with this? Well… hold on a minute because even this
figures can be argued. Of course, tourism in Japan has increased
a lot. But… do you know of other countries with
a booming tourism sector? Chile and Thailand. They have grown at a similar rate as Japan. And… don’t even google it because I will
tell you here: none of this two countries is planning to host any Olympics. The Thailand example is pretty paradigmatic. They get 6 million more tourists than Japan
with half of its population. And their tourism growth is directly correlated
to that of the Chinese middle class. In other words, as Chinese people have more
money, they want to do sight seeing… and where do they go? Of course! They go to countries that are nearby and have
beautiful things to see! But I know what you are thinking! Despite the Olympics not being that profitable
as they seem… what’s the problem if Tokyo wants to have Olympics? Who doesn’t like to have a giant stadium
on his city, huh? Well… let’s have a look at this right
now. GOLD MEDALLIST… IN SPENDING! We all know it… Olympics are costly. From one day to the other, Tokyo will have
to build an Olympic Stadium to host more than 80,000 people. And also, they have to impress them with lights
and colors. But it doesn’t stop here! They need other special venues for the many
competitions that are held at the same time. Each of the sports have its own specifications. Athletism requires different things than swimming
or canoeing. In summary, 31 venues will be built or remodelated
for this Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games. Add to this the media centre, which is another
big White Elephant and, on the top of it, the Olympic Villa. This is short of a small town where more than
10,000 athelets will live during the time the Olympics are held. And, as you can imagine, this will not be
cheap, either. The total cost for this was meant to be 6.5
billion USD. At least, this is the figure given by the
local authorities to the International Olympic Committee in 2013. But, you know, one thing is the theory and
another thing is the reality… Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games costs just keep rising By December 2017, Tokyo City Hall had already
spent over 12 billions. And just a couple of months later, the local
authorities said that, at least, they will end up spending 20 billiones! And maybe, this figure will keep rising before
they burn the Olympic flame… In fact, nothing of this is a surprise. Since we have memory, every Olympic Games
have cost overrun. And we are not talking about little pennies
here! Rio de Janeiro 2016 ended up being 51% more
expensive than expected. But the record, so far, is Montreal 1976,
that costed 700% more than the initial budget. Yes, you heard this right. This is 8 times more that what it was planned
at the beginning. And now you might wonder… All this billion dollars are little or big
money for a government? I mean… compared with the normal spending
in a big city hall… is this a big number? Well, the answer is a big YES. For a better understanding, with 20 billion
USD you could build, for instance, a highway that connected the extreme north of Japan
to their extreme South. But wait a minute because this is not the
worst of all! You see… an airport or a highway can and
up being a waste of money. But, still, you can always reutilize it. A country with better infrastructures and
communication can have better companies in the future, brand new industries or better
public services. But what do you do with an Olympic stadium
that can host 80,000 people? Well… if we look at past examples, the answer
is pretty much bitter… Rio Olympic venues already falling into a
state of disrepair Rio de Janeiro example is pretty harsh. Despite having Olympics, they still have entire
neighbourhoods that are not even connected to the city centre by a bus line. And the place where the Olympic Villa has
is becoming a slum. But wait a minute because this is not the
only example. Athens Olympic site in ruins 10 years on from
2004 Games Add to this the fact that Japan is the most
indebted country in the planet. They owe a sum equivalent to 230% of their
GDP. The government is already struggling to pay
the retirement pensions and they have been 2 years without any economic growth whatsoever. So now this is your turn… Do you think the Tokyo Olympics 2020 will
mean the ruin of Japan? Or maybe, against the odds, Japan will take
some advantage of hosting this event? Please, leave your answer in the comment section
below. And if you wanna know more about this Japanese
failed economy, click on this video. Also, visit our friends from RECONSIDER MEDIA
at RECONSIDERA MEDIA.COM, this is the podcast that provided the voices on this audio that
are not mine. And don’t forget that we publish brand new
videos every Monday and every Thursday so hit that subscribe button and you will not
miss any post. If you liked this video, please, give us a
thumbs up and, as always… I see you next time.

100 Replies to “Will JAPAN go BANKRUPT because of the OLYMPICS? – VisualPolitik EN”

  1. My toddler-level idea:
    Just buy a site next to ancient Olympia in Greece, and use that every four years.
    No idea where the winter-olympics would be based tho.

  2. It was said to collapse many times, did not collapse. After all, if Japan collapses eventually the world will be similar

  3. Dude! Leave the inane preschool insults off your videos. Jesus christ why cant any youtuber go 5 minutes without making a dumbass quip aboit the President. Be a journalist man, not a partisan rhetoric spitter

  4. Great points man, tourism would be the only financial they could get from. I mean, if japan is really gearing up to attract other investments for infrastructure, tech or others. They would not need to spend that much and simply arrange business meetings with foreign countries and should have like you said spend it to further improve their systems

  5. Japan's national debt, approximately 97% of it, is comprised only of Yen. Meaning unlike most other countries where the debt is from overseas currency, Japan is indebted to its own citizens, basically. This is why Japan will never go bankrupt, because all they must do in order to pay back the debt is to print out more of their own currency, the Yen. Very simple.

  6. What a total toss… His missing the entire point of the Olympics…
    Additionally, USA isnt so relevant here, not too many tourists.
    Can't compare tourism between Thailand and Japan. Tourists in Japan drop a lot more cash in country.
    Rio was always going to be a disaster, same goes for world cups in the third world, the infrastructure won't much use.
    With that said the stimulus from the build is good to developing the tourism sector and bolstering GDP (via construction). There will be a hangover, steel and associated business is likely to contract 5-10% 2 years after the Olympics.
    This is why the world expo is planned for Osaka in 2022..

  7. Japan is ALREADY bankrupt, having instigated a monetary policy of permanent quantitative easing, free paper money forever. As far as the Olympics being held in the backyard of Fukushima, the epicenter of the worst nuclear disaster in world history is concerned, I'm sure than all of the participating athletes will soon be "glowing" with health. Atomic energy is insane.

  8. agree with your points but if brazil or russia didnt broke, then the third economy of the world , wont either, dont be so alarming.


  10. Japan you have to lower taxes to get your economy rocking and stop lying to the world and your citizens about Fukushima.

  11. Japan will never go bankrupt as long as it operates under free floating fiat currency. Look at how many recessions they have. It's a proven fact. Why? Because computers can create dollars. It's not fixed to a commodity such as gold.

  12. You’re going to compare Chile’s economy which is the 40th largest in the world and Thailand with is the 26th in world economic power with Japan at number 3, only behind he USA and China? Also Japans GDP 20 years ago was 4.5 trillion +/- and 20 years later they’re approaching 5.8 trillion. So to suggest their economy has been “absolutely flat for 20 years” is not factual. Don’t try to pass yourself off as something your not. I enjoy your VLOGs as they usually have some good information and are at time humorous or even cleaver. But this one is a total fail. One more fact is foreign debt. Though Japan’s debt is approaching 3 times its GDP not 4, it has amount the lowest foreign debt of any country of its size. The Japanese are excellent savers and tend to reinvest their money in their country. In short, Japan can afford a 20 billion Olympic bill as they will get a large percentage of return economically on the 2020 games, even if they do not recover all of their initial investment.

  13. Judging Japans future due to the past of other hosts is rather an ignorant move. Japan is not like Brazil. They're smart people and smart people will find use of whatever will be left behind.

    Just look at how much their country has grown since those atomic bombs were dropped on them and then look at America. Most of America is still a shitshow compared to Japan. Their infrastructure and public transportation system is and I believe is the best in the world so it's quite unfair to judge anything yet.

  14. Local SBL is popular than Olympics in U.S………. What a poor conclusion! U.S .population is around 4% of our earth. And in my country, nobody watching the Super Bowl.
    And Japan is deflation now. To spend the money is good way to escape from the spiral of deflation.

  15. That moment when a country with 14 Times more Inhabitants and 4 times more area than your home country earns just 50% more money because of tourism

  16. The Olympic Games, in modern times, are great but they're largely giant financial losers in the long term for host cities because of the lack of cost controls and generally underestimating the costs in the beginning – likely done on purpose I suppose. I lived in Atlanta for the Centennial Games in 1996 – even attended the opening ceremonies and several events. Although it has been much maligned for problems with logistics, transportation and was mired by a bombing at Centennial Olympic Park by fugitive/extremist Eric Rudolph, one thing for sure is that city saw the Olympics come and leave town without a single penny of public debt. That's right, it was all financed with private money. And because of that there was a plan for every venue to have a new function after the Games were gone such as Centennial Olympic Stadium being converted into Turn Field – new home to Atlanta Braves of Major League Baseball.

    Certainly it wasn't executed flawlessly but when I see how these giant cities are spending 10's of billions for facilities that will be used for two weeks – unless they've figured out something to do with it – I cringe. To me, this is the difference between public/government spending and private/corporate spending; the private investment is making a carefully calculated determination of the risk they're incurring and must do so to ensure they can repay any debt incurred and don't go bankrupt as a result of failing to do so, while governments are clearly not. I mean, they don't have to worry about going bankrupt because governments are largely perpetual so they just pass it on to the next generation to figure out how to pay for it.

    Beyond the public/private finance issue, there are always countless opportunities for political (local, domestic and international) problems to arise. Opportunities during planning and construction for corruption, croneyism, fraud, etc. Here's a link to a story entitled "The 40-year hangover: how the 1976 Olympics nearly broke Montreal" from The Guardian.


  17. I think they will do OK the games should never been allowed to go to cities like Athens and Rio, they had no capacity to get ongoing value as Sydney, London and Beijing did. The future of the olympics will be limited to a few large cities or oil nations founded on the blood of bangladeshi workers.

  18. Greece and Brazil did so why not Japan?Here in Canada i think we're still paying stuff off from when had the games what seems like an eternity ago. Thank God the Mayor of Toronto bailed on bidding for the games when he was elected.It is one of the biggest scams in the world, just there to line the pockets of the Commitee.

  19. I hope not but they do not have a growing population or economy plus the LA games are the only ones to make money (that’s both times)

  20. the olympicS wont ruin japan just they will make no profit at all OUT OF THE THEM!!!!!we the greeks , made profit SOME PROFIT I THINK LOLOL, but they ruin us AT THE END, so what happened to us was the opposite xaaxxaxaxaxxxaxaa i am greek who loves living on credit like the JAPSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS…. XAXAXXAAAXAXAXAXAXX KONITSUAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

  21. The Japanese Government borrows money from its own people (like borrowing from family) so they can still remain solvent regardless of their 260% debt to GDP ratio. The Greek Government borrows money from foreigners (like borrowing from strangers) and defaulted on a 150% debt to GDP ratio. Thus interest payments on Japan’s debt stays within their borders instead of going to foreigners. It is dangerous to have that level of debt but Japan has managed its debt better vs. Europe did.

  22. The fact that tourism was low initially was also affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Disaster which happened in 2011. I wouldn't go and visit an area that has had radioactive fallout… it's now 8 years after the incident so people will start to think it is safer than before (even though it takes decades for these areas to be habitable again) so naturally tourism will begin to rise. With the Olympic Games it provides the "springboard" reason for people to start visiting Japan more often again… PS: Japan tried selling food produce from the areas affected by the radioactive fallout to places like Taiwan, Hong Kong and China by purposefully shipping the (most likely radioactively affected) food to another province within Japan to ship it out as food from a different province or to another country and then to the world as if the produce was from a different country. This was in the news on TV in those areas.

  23. Perhaps poorly forecast and badly managed, it would nonetheless be interesting to know how increased revenues from tourism and foreign investment balance off against that $20Bn Olympic (Olympian?) cost. Moreover, given that a disastrous experience in WWII culminating in 2 nuclear weapons detonations, the firebombing of Tokyo etc. failed to destroy either the Nation or national will of Japan, I doubt the Olympics will either. Nor for that matter did the loss of empire, Nazi bombing nor the Olymips destroy the UK.

  24. This is different from your other videos. You have a point of view and are giving facts that promote that, without giving facts about great post olympic successes of which there are many.

  25. The swimming venue should be ready to go….Yoyogi Hall in Harajuku is still in great shape from the last time the Olympics were in Japan.


  27. Japanese electronic companies are, unfortunately, dying. (Come on playstation!!) Samsung is 3x larger than all Japanese electronics companies combined.

  28. The Olympics just aren't such a big deal these days. In today's world we can see sports with international competitors practically every week. It's no longer the world of the 1970s when most sports/sporting events only drew local/regional competitors.

  29. Comparing tourism numbers in Japan from 2013 to present day makes little sense because in 2013, much of the world was in the 4th year of the great recession caused by the housing bubble and, of course, tourism was down everywhere.

  30. I have not watched your postings for a long time because your socialist bias is annoying; (re; your Donald Trump comment). You seem incapable to resist pushing the failed socialist philosophy.
    Geoff. Reeks

  31. Virtually all costs associated with the Olympics are generally a waste of money. It does provide a bit of prestige to the country but the glamor is off the games. Too many scandals involving the Olympic committee, the conversion to professional being in the games rather than ad hoc "amateurs" and the fact that professionals have more important venues than the Olympic to host their wears have all contributed to the decline of interest in the games. So, even the prestige is diminished. But, I don't think the Olympics will bankrupt Japan. I also think Japan will do a superb job as host and certainly better than Brazil or Russia. But, they will not recover the costs with tourism.

  32. Tech? Yeah, Sony is an insurance company now and Ricoh still makes fax machines. Japanese are nostalgic like the Brits.

  33. The overall cost of the Olympics is extremely high. But the overall growth and fame of the country rise but by looking at the current position of Japan it looks a bit difficult. I think it acts as some kind of risk to Japan. But after all it is Japan( The land of the rising sun) It has the potential to overcome that too.

  34. Two anime for this. C the power of Money and Shangri La. Take on huge collateral for investors so the economy improves and when it comes time to pay up, you realize the collateral is far more than the economy can handle. Huge cost, huge risk, low reward.

  35. I'd love to know how the Japanese are not rioting in the streets worse than Greeks due to their national debt.

    PS we get is you don't like Trump. But can you at least try to keep your opinion to yourself to appear as politically neutral as possible?

  36. Olympics are not the reason for Japanese tourism its anime industry & if Japan loosen there immigrants policy the tourism goona skyrocketed

  37. Japan's debt is held by Japan. Actually a large amount of Japanese debt is held by retired Japanese bond holders through pension funds. So thats how they can have so much debt and be able to take care of its growing retired population. Basically young workers are taxed to pay for old workers. No way is the olympics going to bankrupt Japan, it wouldnt even bankrupt Tokyo if taken by itself!

  38. DO NOT GO TO JAPAN. The Radiation level is still high.
    They are selling Fukushima food to Covenient stores and hotels.

  39. Olympics is watched globally while Superbowl locally. Moreover, Japan is not like China or any developing country. It already has the infrastructures for many decades. Japan hosted Olympic as early as 1964. All they need to do is improve or add to the existing ones.
    While China spent over $40 billion in 2008 Olympic as they have to built virtually from scratch.

  40. In Japan, there is a tendency to shy. However, the statistics of cancer incidence in Japan are now rising because of the radioactive contamination of the whole country in the Japanese archipelago. Why do you spend expensive money to play in Japan, eat radioactive contaminated food and suffer from various diseases? Why do you come up with funding for Japanese military buildup? I am going to the Olympic Games. I want to live healthy. I promise next year that the Olympic athletes will get cancer within 10 years and their children will have a malformed baby.

  41. If recent host cities are in the indication. Then I don't think Japan is going to escape that fate either. Cost overruns are already approaching 30 billion.

    Then you factor in the growing protests here. With the fact that many Japanese didn't seem to want the games.

    One does have to ask the question what was their thinking here? Japan already has somewhat of a reputation for not being welcoming to foreigners.

    So why in the world would they want to host an event like this. Which is just creating more headaches for them and likely even worse perceptions.

    Actually it's going to be kind of amusing to see how a country which isn't used to dealing with foreigners deals with it on this scale.

    Hopefully Japan's underbelly does not come out in these games and I wish them a successful event. But it's one likely Japan is going to feel the pain of four years to come.

  42. My dear friends from all over the world! Watch the Chernobyl TV series and consider boycotting the 2020 Japan Olympics. I'm deeply worried about your well-being. Kudos!

  43. Japanese use radioactive foods and building material to save money. I hope that you will make movies about it.

  44. Don't worry the Japanese will build new homes on that stadium But first they have to break down that stadium which will cost them another $20 billions

  45. I am not affirmative Tokyo olympic in 2020.
    Only Japanese medias and government are interested in it.People in Japan don't mind olympic.

  46. Not to mention radiation danger from Fukushima. Japanese government keep hiding the real existing matter of nuclear exposure of today. Some games will be hosted very close to nuclear waste dump from Fukushima and athletics meals will be provided from the same region as well. I wonder why IOC allowed this whole Japanese government NUCLEAR COVER UP GAME.

  47. Why is he using US exclusive stats for a global event?

    Sure it's a massive chunk of the audience but things like the Superbowl don't perform well outside of the US either so it's a really dumb comparison, stuff like the world cup which is also a multi national sporting event would make more sense to compare on a global view scale.

  48. Bringing tourism yeah. A growing number come from China with over a billion people and a rising middle class with disposable spending money.

  49. anyone noticed that the editing on this video doesn't seem up to scratch? re-used clips at 3:25, spelling error in 'fallacy', sound issues?

  50. I think the Olympics should have 1 country that permanently hosts it.

    It should either be the US or China.

    But I’d say the US is a better choice, particularly Los Angeles since there’s already enormous venues for all types of sports. As well as the fact that there has been only two Olympics that actually made profit, and both were in Los Angeles.

  51. The Olympics is a waste of resources, I had completely forgotten that it was in Japan until I watched this. Be careful with the ”Japan is a lot of debt” thing. As long as your debt is in your own currency and your citizens accept your right to impose taxes, it just isn't a problem. If there is too much money sloshing around you get inflation, Japan has a deflation problem.

  52. Japanese people are intelligent, I think they had studied already or predicted what will happen if they will host the 2020 Olympics.
    I love Japan and i believe in their fighting spirit and positiveness.

  53. U.S. made Japan economy stagnate by devaluing the dollar against the Japanese yen more than 70% from 370 yen to one dollar in 1974 to 107 yen now, "it was 80 yen in 2012 " which make Japanese export very expensive and noncompetitive with other industrial countries. U.S. is afraid of japan becoming a super power.

  54. Why don'these countries just sell the Stadium or the land allocated to it after demolishing the stadium and use that money to either pay debts or develop the country.

  55. Thank god we managed the 2010 Olympics well here in Vancouver. Virtually all the venues are still used, even the specialized ones like the sliding center and the ski jumps for World Cup Events.(Helps we already had a big hockey rink and a big stadium) I have nothing but good memories of those two weeks. We got all of the upsides, with very few of the downsides.

  56. The biggest issue for japan is not the money it’s the infrastructure. I go to japan every other year and in Tokyo I can’t imagine that many tourists filling the Subway/train stations. There are going to be lines just to get on the subway and people still have to go to work. Japan mostly uses public transportation.

  57. https://youtu.be/fo8o97m-FPA Thank you for your videos. Please check out our athlete team's behind the scenes video on the real-world Olympic Fiefdom's Game of Thrones lifestyle and leadership as well as our petition on the damages done by the Tokyo 2020 Olympics (most destructive sports leadership and Olympic Games in history). Would love to see a VisualPolitik EN video on content from both of these.

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