Thrissur | Wikipedia audio article

Thrissur | Wikipedia audio article


Thrissur pronunciation (originally Thiru Siva
Peroor and previously known by its anglicised form as Trichur), is the fourth largest city,
the third largest urban agglomeration in Kerala (Pop. 1,854,783) and the 20th largest in India.
It is also the headquarters of the Thrissur District. The City is built around a 65-acre
(26 ha) hillock called the Thekkinkadu Maidan which seats the Vadakkumnathan temple. Thrissur
was once the capital of the Kingdom of Cochin. It is located 300 kilometres (186 mi) towards
north-west of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram.Thrissur is also known as the ‘Cultural Capital of
Kerala’ because of its cultural, spiritual and religious leanings throughout history
. One of the very famous cultural events in Thrissur includes ‘Thrissur Pooram’, which
is world famous and attracts quite a number of tourists and travellers.==Etymology==
The name Thrissur (Malayalam: തൃശ്ശൂര്‍) is a shortened form Malayalam word Thiru-Shiva-Per-Ur
(Malayalam: തിരു-ശിവ-പേര്-ഊര്, Lord-Shiva-Name-Town) literally translates
to ‘The City or Town with the name of the “Lord Shiva”‘. The name owes itself to the
most prominent feature of the city, that is the Vadakkumnathan Temple, which has Shiva
as its presiding deity. Alternately, Thri-Shiva-Perur (Malayalam: ത്രി-ശിവ-പേരൂർ,
Three-Shiva-Palace) means the place with three famous Shiva temples which are said to be
– the Vadakkumnathan Temple, Kottapuram Shiva temple and the Poonkunnam Siva Temple.
Thrissur was known by its anglicised name Trichur until 1990, when the government decided
to replace it with its Malayalam name. Thrissur was also known as “Vrishabhadripuram” (Kailasam
of the South) in ancient days.==Cultural and Business Significance==
Thrissur is also known as the Cultural Capital of Kerala because of its cultural, spiritual
and religious leanings throughout history. It contains the Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka Academy,
Kerala Lalithakala Akademi and Kerala Sahitya Academy. The city hosts the Thrissur Pooram
festival, the most colourful and spectacular temple festival in Kerala. The festival is
held at the Thekkinkadu Maidan in April or May. Thrissur has a large number of well-known
temples including the Vadakkumnathan temple, Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple and Paramekkavu
temple, and the Guruvayur temple as well as two famous churches, the Our Lady of Lourdes
Syro-Malabar Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral and the Our Lady of Dolours Syro-Malabar Catholic
Basilica, the largest Christian church in India.Thrissur has historically been a centre
of Hindu scholarship. The city has one of the most important temples of Hindu Shaivism,
that is the Vadakunnathan temple. The district is also home of one of the most holiest Hindu
Vaishnava temples, the Guruvayur temple. Christianity, Islam and Judaism entered into
the Indian subcontinent through the Thrissur District. The works of scholars and Eastern
Christian writings claim Thomas the Apostle to have set foot in Muziris near Thrissur
2,000 years ago. (AD 51–52) India’s first mosque, Cheraman Juma Masjid, opened in AD
629. Thrissur has opened the gates for Arabs, Romans, Portuguese, Dutch and English.
The city has served as an incubator for many Malayali entrepreneurs, and is a major financial
and commercial hub of Kerala. It flexes its economic muscle in India as the headquarters
of three major scheduled banks, South Indian Bank Ltd, Catholic Syrian Bank and Dhanalakshmi
Bank Ltd and a clutch of Chit funds. The city is also a big centre for shopping in Kerala
for silks and gold jewellery. Thrissur attracts the largest number of domestic tourists in
Kerala.Apart from being the cultural nerve centre of Kerala, it is also a major academic
hub and is home to several educational institutions including the Kerala Kalamandalam, St Thomas
College which is more than a century old, Jawahar Bal Bhavan Thrissur, Kerala Police
Academy, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala University of Medical and Allied Sciences,
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Kerala Institute of Local Administration and
Kerala Forest Research Institute.==History=====
Pre-history===The Ramavarmapuram monument is in granite
and is of the menhir type. The monument in Ramavarmapuram is 15 feet (4.6 m) in height
and 12 feet 4 inches (3.76 m) wide. Since 1944, it has been protected by the Department
of Archaeology. The monument is locally known as Padakkallu or Pulachikkallu. These menhirs
are memorials put up at burial sites for the departed souls. They belong to the Megalithic
Age of Kerala, which is roughly estimated between 1000 BCE and 500 CE. All such monuments
have not been dated exactly. Some experts are of the view that these are the remnants
of the Neolithic Age in the development of human technology. The Ramavarmapuram menhir
is also believed to be a monument belonging to the Sangam period in the South Indian history.Another
monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves are at Porkulam, Chiramanengad, Eyyal,
Kattakambal and Kakkad. According to historians, the dolmens are burial sites. Though most
of the monuments were well protected, the dolmen at Porkulam was in a neglected condition.
The monument excavated under eminent Archaeologist B. K. Thapar, between 1949 and 1950, was under
the Department of Archaeology. Another megalithic monument is situated at Ariyannur in Thrissur.
This place has unravelled monuments such as the Kudakkallu or Thoppikkallu (Mushroom stones
or Umbrella stones) and ‘Munimada’ (Saint’s abode). The laterite hillocks of Ariyannur
rise to about 50 metres. Another reference in Ariyannur dates back to the early 15th
century in the poem Chandrotsavam.===Pre-colonial history===
The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between
Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period. The early political history
of Thrissur is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled
over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was later ruled
by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam). Later, a powerful dynasty known as Zamorins
of Calicut captured most of the Thrissur in 14th and 15th century.===Colonial period===
Next was the turn of Portuguese who ruled Thrissur in the 16th century. In the beginning
of the 17th century the Portuguese power was reduced and Dutch became the main power. With
the help of Dutch, Cochin Royal Family recaptured Thrissur from Samoothiri in 1710. The modern City of Thrissur rose to importance
after Sakthan Thampuran ascended the throne of Kingdom of Cochin (1769–1805). He changed
the capital of Cochin Royal Family to Thrissur from Mattancherry and abolished the power
of Namboothiri community, which controlled most of the temples of Thrissur district.
The maharaja destroyed the forest around the Thekkinkadu Maidan which seats the Vadakkumnathan
temple, and started the most spectacular cultural festival called Thrissur Pooram. Sakthan Thampuran
laid the modern foundation stone of Thrissur and made the city into a major financial and
commercial hub of South India, by inviting Syrian Christian families and Brahmins from
adjoining areas.However, during 1750–60 Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore, attacked
Thrissur and became tributary of the Kingdom of Mysore. Tipu Sultan, his son led another
invasion in 1786 to Thrissur, where he destroyed the churches of Syrian Malabar Nasrani community
and Hindu temples. Tipu Sultan’s Army set fire to the church at Palayoor and attacked
the Ollur church. The economy of Thrissur totally collapsed because of this invasion.
Later he made a retreat from Thrissur, which served as the headquarters of Kerala region,
after the Srirangapattanam war. In the meantime, Rama Varma X, the successor of Sakthan Thampuran
signed a treaty with East Indian Company, and made Cochin a subsidiary of the British.====Anti-Colonial movements====The Indian freedom movement struggle also
grew in momentum in Thrissur after a Committee was formed in 1919 of the Indian National
Congress. In 1921, the Civil Disobedience Movement also attracted a large number of
people into the freedom struggle. In 1927 Mahatma Gandhi visited Vivekodayam School
in the city. In 1934, father of the nation, again visited the city for the housewarming
of Barrister Krishna Menon. The house afterwards was known “Gandhi Mandiram” in Chembukkavu.
In the mean time, R. K. Shanmukham Chetty, the controversial Diwan of Cochin Kingdom
from 1935 to 1941, was developing City by constructing Thrissur Town Hall and Ramanilayam.
Even now also two monuments remain as the epicentre of Kerala politics. DR M R Menon,
a minister in Government of Kochi was instrumental in building the Municipal Corporation Building,
Thrissur and the Municipal Office Road. He even concerted Swaraj Round and other peripheries
of the city road.===Post-Colonial===
In 1947, when India gained independence from the British rule, Thrissur was under Kingdom
of Cochin. Thrissur district was formed on 1 July 1949, with the headquarters at Thrissur
City. The city is usually referred to as the Cultural Capital of Kerala. The city had been
a breeding ground of famous politicians and bureaucrats like R. K. Shanmukham Chetty,
P.C. Rao, C. Achutha Menon, K. Karunakaran, Joseph Mundassery, Vinod Rai etc. after the
independence. These individuals have changed the trajectory of Thrissur City afterwards. .
P.S. Rao, advisor to the Rajapramukh and acting Governor of Kerala, is another person who
Thrissukkar is indebted to. He expanded Thrissur City by shifting all the administrative and
government offices like Thrissur Collectorate to Ayyanthole from Chembukavu. Government
Engineering College, Thrissur, is another gift from Joseph Mundassery, the controversial
former education minister who introduced Kerala Education Act. C. Achutha Menon, the former
Chief Minister of Kerala gifted Kerala Agricultural University in 1971, a university for all agricultural
related activities.K. Karunakaran, the Bhishma of Kerala politics started his career in Thrissur
as a painter. Later on he became the “Leader” of city. During his regime Thrissur-Guruvayur
Section and Poonkunnam Over Bridge was built. Vinod Rai, the Comptroller and Auditor General
of India, is another person who turned fortunes of the city by building Sakthan Thampuran
Nagar (S.T.Nagar) when he was collector of Thrissur district. He is also known as the
second Sakthan Thampuran of Thrissur by shifting the Municipal Stand near the M.O. Road to
Shaktan Thampuran Nagar, now known as Shaktan Thampuran Private Bus Stand, Thrissur. Another
IAS officer who made remarkable contributions to the development of Trichur is Raju Narayana
Swamy. He single-handedly widened five roads of the city- Pattalom Road, Inner Ring Road,
Ragam Theatre Road, Padinjare Kotta and Chemputti Lane – thereby changing the face of the
town.==Geography==The city of Thrissur is situated in Thrissur
District of Central Kerala in India. The city is located at 10.52°N 76.21°E / 10.52;
76.21 and has an average altitude of 2.83 metres. The city is 75 km north-east of Kochi,
133 km south-west of Coimbatore , 124 km south-east of Kozhikode and 151 km north of Changanacherry.
The city is located in a hillock called Thekkinkadu Maidan which is the second highest point in
city after the Vilangan Hills. From the hillock, the geography of the city move towards middle
land where Thrissur Kole Wetlands is situated. The Kole Wetlands act as a natural drainage
for the city where the water is carried out to river and from there to the Laccadive Sea,
thus keeping Thrissur city safe from flood waters which affect most of the other cities
in Kerala. Different ponds, rivers and canals also keep
the ground water safe from salt waters. The city is located in midland regions of Kerala,
with an extended part of Palakkad plains. The city geologically is composed of Archaean
gneisses and crystalline schists. Major parts of city is covered by Archaeans rocks. The
city lies near the centre of the Indian tectonic plate (the Indian Plate) and is subject to
comparatively little seismic or volcanic activity.===Climate===
Under the Köppen climate classification, City of Thrissur features a Tropical monsoon
climate. Summer lasts from March to May which is the hottest time of the year. Summer months
are uncomfortable due to higher levels of heat and humidity. Daytime temperatures can
rise up to 36- 38°C coupled with excessive humidity. Summer is followed by the South-west
monsoon from June to September. October and November form the post monsoon or retreating
monsoon season. Winter from December through February is cooler, and windy, due to winds
from the Western Ghats. Winter months are generally dry and less humid compared to other
months of the year. Morning temperatures are usually cool and daytime temperatures hover
around 30°C.The City is drained in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual
rainfall is 300 cm. The South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of
May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a
year. The maximum average temperature of the City in the summer season is 36-degree Celsius
while the minimum temperature recorded is 27degrees Celsius. The winter season records
a maximum average of 31-degree Celsius and a minimum average of 20-degree Celsius.==Economy==Thrissur is home to many leading Malayali
entrepreneurs, and is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala. Historians say that
King Sakthan Thampuran had invited several Syrian Christian families and Brahmins to
settle in Thrissur city from their business centres in adjoining areas. Soon, Thrissur
became a flourishing centre of internal trade in Kerala. Thrissur is one of the major manufacturing
centres of plain gold and rolled gold jewellery in South India; up to 70% of Kerala’s jewellery
is manufactured in Thrissur. There are around 3,000 gold ornaments manufacturing units in
the city and 40,000-odd artisans and others work in these units. The industry provides
direct and indirect employment to 200,000 people in Thrissur. The artisans based in
these units, craft nearly 85 percent of one tonne gold which is used per day in Kerala.
About 90 tonnes of gold was being used annually in Kerala for manufacturing of ornaments daily. According to Reserve Bank of India, the city
in the 1930s boasted of head offices of 58 banks and was recognised by RBI as ‘Banking
Town’. Even now also it’s the headquarters of major banks like South Indian Bank, Catholic
Syrian Bank, Dhanalakshmi Bank, Lord Krishna Bank and non-banking institutions like Manappuram
General Finance and Leasing Ltd, Kerala State Financial Enterprise and ESAF Microfinance
and Investments. The city’s financial capabilities also saw the rise of Chit fund. According
to All Kerala Kuri Foreman’s Association, Kerala have around 5,000 chit companies, with
Thrissur District accounting for the maximum of 3,000. These chit companies provide employment
to about 35,000 persons directly and an equal number indirectly. The city is also emerging as the largest hub
for Ayurvedic drug manufacturing industry in India. Out of the 850 ayurvedic drug-manufacturing
units in Kerala, about 150 units, including some of the major ayurvedic drug manufacturers
in the Kerala state are located in and around the city. Of these, some of the companies
like the Oushadhi, Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala, KP Namboodiris, Sitaram Ayurvedic Pharmacy
Ltd, Kandamkulathy Vaidyasala, SNA Oushadhasala
etc. are among the leading ayurvedic drug manufacturers in the state. Thrissur Ayurveda
Cluster, anonther initiative by a group of Ayurvedic manufacturers of Thrissur, has developed
a cluster in KINFRA Park in Koratty in Thrissur District.Modern retailing is a big business
and revenue earner for the city. Jewellery and textile retailing occupies a major part
of the retailing business in Thrissur. The city is considered as hub of jewellery and
textile business in Kerala. Most of the jewellery groups have outlets in Thrissur and provide
jobs to thousands of people. Kalyan Group, Jos Alukka & Sons, Joyalukkas and Josco Group
have their bases in city. InfoPark Thrissur, the fourth technology park in Kerala after
Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi and Kozhikode is situated in Thrissur District. Tourism
has also contributed heavily to the economy of Thrissur. Domestic tourists generally use
the city as a hub to explore the highly promoted tourism industry of the state of Kerala. The
city with its temples, old churches and its culture, is ranked first in the number of
domestic tourists visiting Kerala.==Administration==Thrissur city functioned as a municipality
since 1921 under the Cochin Municipal Regulations. In 1932, the new corporation building was
constructed, and in 1972 new areas from other Panchayats were added to the municipality.
On 1 October 2000, the municipal town was upgraded to the level of a Municipal Corporation
with the Panchayats of Ayyanthole, Koorkkenchery, Nadathara, Vilvattom (part), Ollur and Ollukkara.
The Corporation comprises three legislative assemblies Thrissur, Ollur and Cherpu. The
city is administered by the Thrissur Municipal Corporation, headed by a mayor. The corporation
is the second-largest city corporation in the state of Kerala in India. The city is
the only local body in Kerala which directly controls power, water supply and solid waste
management system in the city. For administrative purposes, the city is divided
into 52 wards, from which the members of the corporation council are elected for five years.
The corporation has its headquarters in Thrissur city. The Thrissur Urban Development Authority
and Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD) are the agencies that prepare development
plan for the city.===Law and order===
The city is the headquarters of Thrissur City Police and Thrissur Rural Police. The Thrissur
City Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The
city is divided into two sub divisions, Thrissur and Guruvayur. It also operates 14 police
stations, including a woman police station and a traffic police station.The Thrissur
City Police Commissionerate operates out of the erst-while District Armed Police headquarters
at Ramavarmapuram. The Thrissur Rural Police has its headquarters at the District Collectorate
complex at Ayyanthole. The city is also the headquarters of Inspector General of Police,
Thrissur Range, which looks after the law and order of Thrissur District, Palakkad District
and Malappuram district. All the Superintendent of Police of these three districts come under
his jurisdiction. The city also contains the Kerala Police Academy, Central Prison, Viyyur,
Police Dog Training Centre and Excise Academy and Research Centre. India Reserve Battalion,
new commando unit of Kerala Police is headquartered in Ramavarmapuram. Border Security Force (148
battalion) have its first centre in Kerala in Thrissur only.==Demographics==As of 2011 India census, Thrissur city had
a population of 315,957. Males constitute 48.2% and females constitute 51.8% of the
total population numbering 152,296 and 163,661 respectively. The density of population is
3,130/km2. The sex ratio is 1,092/1,000 male. The total number of the households in the
city is 66,827. The average family size in the city is 4.27 members. The city has a slum
population equivalent to 0.30% of the total city population and 0.37% of the Kerala’s
slum population. The city has an average literacy rate of 95.5%: male literacy rate is 97% whereas
female literacy rate is 94.6%. Thrissur Municipal Corporation is spread over
an area of 101.42 km2. The city alone accounts for 38% of the urban population in the Thrissur
District. Thrissur Urban Development Authority area encompasses the municipal corporation
area and adjoining panchayats. The total area under municipal corporation jurisdiction is
101.42 km2, and the area under the Panchayats is 18.83 km2 Together, these constitute an
area covering 120.25 km2. Hindus constitute the majority with 54.2%
of the population and numbering 171,252. Christians constitute 40% of the population with 126,443
members. Muslims constitute 5.4% of the population with 17,375 members.==Politics==Thrissur has played a significant part in
the political history of South India. The city of Thrissur is represented in the Kerala
State Assembly by two elected members, one from Thrissur Assembly Constituency and another
from Ollur Assembly Constituency. Adv V.S Sunilkumar is the representative of Thrissur
Assembly Constituency and K.Rajan from Ollur Assembly Constituency. Thrissur city is also
a part of the Thrissur Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the
lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years. The current MP is C. N.
Jayadevan. The Lok Sabha seat has been held by the Indian National Congress for six terms
(1951–1957, 1984–1989, 1989–1991, 1991–1996, 1999–2004 and 2009–2014) and the Communist
Party of India for ten terms (1957–1962, 1962–1967, 1967–1970, 1971–1977, 1977–1979,
1980–1984, 1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2004–2009 and 2014-present).==Transport=====
Road===The city is connected to the North-South Corridor
National Highway (India) via the four-lane National Highway 47. The highway traverses
through the entire length and breadth of the city from different points and provides access
to the nearby cities such of Kochi, Palakkad and Coimbatore. NH 47 provides two main exit
points at Mannuthy and which is bypass to the Thrissur city and Thalore. The city is
largely dependent on private buses, Taxis and auto rickshaws (called autos) for public
transport. A transit terminal mobility hub situated in Puzhakkal is also under wraps
to be made on lines of Vyttila Mobility Hub to reduce traffic congestion is recently approved
to be realised soon.State-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs inter-state,
inter-district and city services. Thrissur has three bus stations, the Shaktan Thampuran
Private Bus Stand, Thrissur in Sakthan Thampuran Nagar, Vadakke Stand (Northern Bus Stand)
and the Thrissur KSRTC Bus Station near the Thrissur Railway Station. State Highway (SH
69) Thrissur-Kuttippuram Road, SH 22 Kodungallur – Shornur Road, SH 75 Thrissur – Kanjani
– Vadanappally Road are the three state highways which connect city with its suburbs
and municipalities.===Railway===
The Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways operates the main rail transport system in
Thrissur. There are four railway stations in Thrissur city. Thrissur Railway Station,
one of the four A+ railway station in Kerala provides trains to three directions and lies
on the busy Shoranur-Cochin Harbour section. It has a satellite station, Punkunnam railway
station and two minor stations, Ollur Railway Station and Mulankunnathukavu Railway Station.
Thrissur Railway Station also connects to the temple town of Guruvayur by Thrissur-Guruvayur
Section. In addition, Southern Railways is running a suburban railway system connecting
Thrissur to Kochi and Palakkad using Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit services (MEMU).===Air===The city is served by Cochin International
Airport (Nedumbassery), which is about 55 kilometres away. Direct domestic flights are
available to major Indian cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore
and Kolkata. International flights to Middle East cities like Dubai, Kuwait, Bahrain, Muscat,
Sharjah, Jeddah, Riyadh, Doha and to Southeast Asian cities Singapore and Kuala Lumpur are
available here. It has a dedicated Heli-taxi service and Chartered flights. Calicut International
Airport at Karipur, is 80 kilometers from the city and Coimbatore Airport, which is
114 kilometers from the city also can be used by travellers.==Culture and literature=====
Festivals===Known as the Cultural Capital of Kerala, the
city enjoys a thriving cultural tradition dating back to centuries, and being the centre
of Kerala’s cultural activities. Thrissur Pooram also called as ‘the pooram of all poorams’
is celebrated in every year in the month of Medam (mid-April to mid-may) as per the malayalam
calendar. It is the biggest of all poorams held in Kerala. The city plays host, for 36
hours from the wee hours of the pooram day, to one of the most largest collection of people
and elephants. Puli Kali also known as Kavakali is another festival, which attracts thousands
of people to the city. It is performed by trained artists to entertain people on the
occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in Kerala.
The most important festivals celebrated in the City include Christmas, Onam, Easter,
Eid and Vishu. The City is widely acclaimed as the land of elephant lovers.Aanayoottu
(feeding of elephants), is the world largest elephant feeding ceremony held in Vadakkunnathan
Temple in the City annually. The ceremony is conducted on the first day of the Malayalam
month of Karkidakam.===Literature===
Literary lineage of city dates back to early history of Kerala but it came to prominence
after Kerala Government set up Kerala Lalita Kala Akademi, Kerala Sahitya Academy, Kerala
Sangeetha Nadaka Academy and College of Fine Arts, Thrissur for promoting literature, music
and arts in Kerala. After the Indian Independence, Thrissur became the literary capital of Kerala
as turned to the playground of novelist, poets and orators. In 1952 when Current Books set
its first shop in Thrissur by former education Minister Professor Joseph Mundassery, it become
the abode of writer’s like O. V. Vijayan, Kovilan, V. K. N., Uroob, Edasseri Govindan
Nair, M. T. Vasudevan Nair, K. G. Sankara Pillai and Sarah Joseph. The area was later
known as Current Moola (“Current Corner”). The building that housed the Current Books
bookshop was demolished in 2011.Thrissur is home to prominent malayalam literary figures
like Kovilan, Kunhunni Mash, Sukumar Azhikode, K. Satchidanandan, Mullanezhi, Sarah Joseph,
Attoor Ravi Varma, Lalitha Lenin, P. Bhaskaran, Joseph Mundassery.===Temples, Churches and Mosques===Temples
The Vadakkunnathan temple, believed to have been founded by the legendary saint Parasurama,
is a classic example of the Kerala style of architecture and houses several sacred shrines
and with beautiful murals delineating graphically, various episodes from the Mahabharata.
Thiruvambadi Sri Krishna Temple, one of the largest Sree Krishna temples in Kerala and
Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple which is one of the largest Bagavathi temples in Kerala
is also situated in the city. Sree Guruvayurappan Temple, is located in Guruvayur (municipal
town), Thrissur District. It is also referred to as Bhuloka Vaikunta which means “Holy Abode
of Vishnu on Earth”. Churches
Asia’s tallest church, the Our Lady of Dolours Syro-Malabar Catholic Basilica (Puthan Pally),
Our Lady of Lourdes Syro-Malabar Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral which has an underground
shrine, is a masterpiece of architecture. Mart Mariam Cathedral, the oldest church in
the city, which belongs to the Assyrian Church of the East also known as Chaldean Syrian
Church of the East, is situated in Thrissur. The St. Anthony’s Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane
Church, also known as Chinna Roma (Small Rome) are also in Thrissur.
Mosques The Chettiyangadi Hanafi Mosque in Thrissur
City is one of the oldest mosque in Thrissur. Kalathode Mosque (Kalathode Juma Masjid) in
Thrissur city has the facility of cemetery. Kokkalai Juma Masjid, Westfort Sunni Juma
Masjid (West Fort), Salafi Juma Masjid near Railway Station, MIC Juma Masjid near Shakthan
Bus Stand, Ayyanthole Juma Masjid (Ayyanthole), Olari Juma Masjid(Olari) are other mosques
in Thrissur City. Cheraman Juma Mosque in Kodungalloor, ( 40
km from Thrissur ) is the First Mosque in India.===Cuisine===
The cuisine of Thrissur is linked to its history, geography, demography and culture. Rice is
the staple food. Achappam and Kuzhalappam are popular snacks. Vellayappam, a kind of
rice hopper is another dish which is special to the city.==Education==List of colleges and universities in Thrissur
districtAlready known as the Cultural Capital of Kerala, it is also fast developing as an
education hub. The City has traditionally been a centre of learning from ancient times.
With the decline of Buddhism and Jainism and due to the growing supremacy of Brahminism
during the revival of Hinduism, the City became an important centre of Sanskrit learning.
Schools in city are either run publicly by the Kerala Government or privately, some with
financial aid from the Government. The medium of education is either English or Malayalam,
with the former being the majority. Most schools are affiliated with the Kerala State Education
Board or Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) or the Central Board for Secondary
Education (CBSE) or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Montessori
system. There are 93 lower primary schools; 34 upper primary schools; and 78 high schools;
and 157 higher secondary schools in the city. With universities like Kerala Kalamandalam,
Kerala Police Academy, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala University of Medical and
Allied Sciences, National Research Institute for Panchakarma, Cheruthuruthy and Kerala
Institute of Local Administration, the City would add another feather in its crown by
having ‘World Class University’ and a ‘Science City’.
The Raj Kovu institute of Agriculture was made in 2012 to teach farmers about modern
techniques of agriculture and better farming practices. The college currently has 300 students.
With the three medical colleges, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Jubilee Mission
Medical College and Research Institute, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences and a medical
university Kerala University of Medical and Allied Sciences, the city has become synonymous
with medical education in Kerala The district has two kendreya vidyalayas==
Healthcare==The city serves as a centre for healthcare
in the Central Kerala. The portion covers Thrissur District, Palakkad District, Malappuram
District and northern part of Ernakulam District. Most of the people in these districts come
to city of Thrissur for their medical care. There are three medical colleges, Government
Medical College, Thrissur, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences and Jubilee Mission Medical
College and Research Institute, and few other hi-tech hospitals.
The city has an ancient tradition of Ayurvedic treatment. From the Ashtavaidya tradition,
Oushadhi, Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala, Sitaram Ayurvedic Pharmacy Ltd and SNA Oushadhasala
is located in city of Thrissur, All these firms have been instrumental in spreading
the fame of Kerala Ayurvedic treatment, as thousands of overseas patients visit the Ayurvedic
treatment facilities in and around Thrissur, every year. Vaidyaratnam runs a medical college
and Chikitsalayam, with global standards. Sitaram have a 100 bedded eight storied super
speciality hospital in the city of Thrissur, envisaged as the first of its kind Ayurveda
super speciality hospital in the country.==Sports==The city has been the breeding ground for
the Kerala footballers, and Football is the most popular sport in the city. There are
two football stadiums in the city, Thrissur Municipal Corporation Stadium and Thope Stadium.
Famous international players and former Indian captains C. V. Pappachan, I. M. Vijayan and
Jo Paul Ancheri,the young Under 17 World Cup player K.P.Rahul belong to Thrissur. The N.I.
David Memorial Trophy, an annual inter-club football tournament is held in Thrissur every
year. The football championship was started in 1996 by the then Superintendent of Police,
Thrissur. The city has a floodlit stadium, known as Thrissur Municipal Corporation Stadium.
It also has two indoor stadiums, V.K.N. Menon Indoor Stadium and a Sports Authority of India
(SAI) maintained Thrissur Aquatic Complex with international facilities. Thrissur has
contributed many national and international bodybuilding stars to India such as TV Poly
and VM Basheer. Chess prodigy Nihal Sarin is from Thrissur.==Media==The first Malayalam newspaper which published
from Thrissur was Lokamanyan in 1920. Then came Deenabandhu edited by V. R. Krishnan
Ezhuthachan. Ezhuthachan started publishing as a weekly in 1941 from Thrissur. It was
one of the first periodicals that supported the national movement. As soon as the Quit
India movement was started, its editor and staff were sent to jail and publications were
banned. Later Lokamanyan (1920); Kerala Chintamani (1905); Kerala Kesari (1924); Mahatma (1930);
Gomathy (1930) and Navajeevan of Joseph Mundassery was also published from Thrissur.The Express
started in 1944 from Thrissur with K Krishanan as the editor is very popular in Central Kerala
for its nationalist and socialist views. Major Malayalam newspapers published in Thrissur
include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani, Mangalam,
Veekshanam, Metro Vaartha and Janayugom. A number of evening papers, like General in
Malayalam and City Journal in English, are also published from the City. Newspapers in
other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also available in city. The first cinema hall in Kerala, with a manually
operated film projector, was opened in Thrissur by Jose Kattookkaran in 1907. In 1913, the
first electrically operated film projector was established in city again by Jose Kattookkaran
and was called the Jose Electrical Bioscope now famously known as Jose Theatre.A film
festival, known as ViBGYOR Film Festival, is held in the city every year. It is an international
short and documentary film festival. Telephony services are provided by various players like
Aircel, Airtel, Idea cellular, Vodafone, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Docomo, MTS, Uninor, Tata Indicom
and the state owned BSNL. BSNL is also offering 3G services in Thrissur. The city also have
Broadband wireless services on WiMAX platform.Private FM radio stations in the Thrissur are Club
FM 104.8 MHz, Radio Mango 91.9 MHz, BEST FM 95 by (Asianet Communications Limited), Red
FM 91.1 MHz. All India Radio has an AM (630 kHz) and an FM (101.1 MHz) station for the
city. The transmitter of the All India Radio (630 kHz) was commissioned on 4 November 1956.
The station started independent broadcasting in 1974. Thrissur has a Doordarshan studio
with a low power transmitter located near the studio.==Tourism Circuit Tourism==
2017 is being celebrated by the United Nation Organisation as the year of sustainable development
of tourism. Keeping this in mind, DTPC, Thrissur, under the department of tourism, Kerala has
launched Tourism Circuits all across the District, with a view to promote and uplift these cherished
hopes. In order to full fill the goals, six (06) Tourism Circuits have been formed in
Thrissur District, namely, Blue Circuit
Brown Circuit Yellow Circuit
Orange Circuit Green Circuit
Red CircuitThese circuits were conceptualised by the Assistant Collector Under Trainee Mr.
M.V.R Krishna Teja IAS under the aegis of the District Collector Dr. A. Kowsigan IAS.
They were inaugurated by the Honb Minister of Industries Sri A.C. Moideen and Honb Agriculture
Minister Sri V.S. Sunil Kumar on 7 April.==Picture gallery====
See also==List of twin towns and sister cities in India
Visitor attractions in Thrissur List of tallest buildings in Thrissur

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